About Everest
People of the Altitudes
ImageEverest climb organizations are first welcomed by people and culture instead of the mountains. Geographies of the altitudes open up their gates with an intense cultural bombing. Katmandu is a favorite place not only for climbers and trekkers but also for the westerns intending to find their souls in the East.Budizm gathers people from the far countries instead of the soils it is emerged from. House of the travelers that visited Everest region is decorated with colorful authentic objects. Mountaineers while going back home take prayer flags and photograph of Sherpa boys. But far away from this touristic scenery there are other realities.

Struggles on Top of the World
First Map of Everest, 1858
Altitude climbing is alone an activity but the most important is to climb the highest. In the beginning of 19th century the English were still trying to discover the highest point. The discovery and the conquest of the Indian peninsula had been started as a military charge. That charge was mainly a cartographic research and in 1808 it had also aimed to discover the highest point of the earth. After 48 years in 1856 they could scientifically announce the XV.summit as the highest. That year the English commander in charge of the Indian research had named the summit with the name of the former commander. Thus “Chomolungma” the mother Goddess of the Earth was registered in the name of Sir George Everest. After this there stood three points left; to take a picture of the summit, to measure the height, and to climb to the top.

First Trials: "Because it is There"
In 1921 English George Mallory, directed an expedition where the main camp was under the western ridge around 5900 meters. In this expedition they examined the south cool route and named the region under Lhotse face as Western Cwn.As a result of the expedition, they decided that South Col is not appropriate for climbing because of “intransitive” Khumbu Icefall. As Nepal border was shut down till World War II, There had been no trials from this district.
First Ascent: 1953 John Hunt Expedition
1953 Expedition Team
After China got hold of Tibet’s control in 1950, to reach Everest from that region was forbidden for the western expeditions. After that date, ascent trials were made from Nepal to south face.

In 1953 a British expedition in control of John Hunt put an end to the trials to reach the summit of Everest. At 29 May 1953 Edmund Hillary, New Zealand and Sherpa Tenzig Norgay from the British team reached 8848m.Then first ascent to the summit is remembered in the name of these two. But in the struggle to reach the summit of Chomolungma there was many mountaineers who had contributions to this ascent.
There Are Women: First Women Ascent and the Others
Junko Tabei
First woman to be seen on top of Everest is after 22 years of the first summit .At 15 May 1975 Junko Tabei and Sherpa Ang Tsering from the Japanese expedition in the leadership of Eiko Hisano, reached the summit.

There was an interesting debate about the women ascents. 10 days after Tabei reached the summit, Phantog from Tibet from a Tibetan expedition had reached the summit. And during a Tibet-China expedition in the leadership of Shib Chab-Chun, 14 women had reached above 7800 meters. Which should be considered as the main success for women?

Soldiers Without Masks: Ascents Without Oxygen Supply
Everesi without Oxygen,1978
To reach the peak of Everest which is said to be 8850 meters after last measurements, man should defeat himself as well as the high altitudes.

Above 8000 meters, it is impossible for the human body to stay alive. In the trials to climb the Everest, one of the targets is to reach the summit with your own power, without using oxygen supply.
World with Two Poles
After being reached, Everest’s peak had become a national target for many countries. In 1970’s it was very important to be the “first” and the “most” .During these years, a world with two poles had many influences on mountaineering.
Free Market Tragedy at the High Altitudes
1990’s had started a new period. Expeditions are being influenced by the commercial air all around the world. On their own or with native partners, Western entrepreneurs formed travel agencies that took their clients to the top of the world. To give the best service they employed the successful mountaineers.
Before Everest is First Climbed
  • 1841: Sir George Everest, Surveyor General of India from 1830 to 1843, records the location of Everest.
  • 1848: Peak b is surveyed the British, which ruled India; The height is calculated at 30,200 feet from measurements taken 110 miles away.
  • 1852: The Great Trigonmetrical Survey of India determines the Peak XV is the highest mountain in the world.
  • 1854: Peak b renamed Peak XV.
  • 1856: Surveyor Andrew Waugh completes the first height measurement, declaring Everest to be 8840 meters high. (29,002 feet).
  • 1865: Peak XV re-named Mt. Everest to honor Sir George Everest, the Surveyor General of India. Everest is known as Chomolungma in Tibet and Sagarmatha in Nepal.
Important Climbs and Events
  • May 29, 1953: First Summit: Tenzing Norgay & Sir Edmund Percival Hillary (New Zealand) via the South-East Ridge Route. (Western Cwm, Lhotse face to the South-East ridge.)
  • May 25, 1960: Chinese team makes first Summit of Everest via the North Ridge.
  • May 22, 1963: The first ascent of the Everest West Ridge, actually the West Ridge/North Face by Willi Unsoeld and Tom Hornbein. Also the first traverse as they descended the South East Ridge/ South Col.
  • 1975: Japanese Ladies Expedition led by Mrs Eiko Hisana. On May 16 Junko Tabei of Japan became the first woman to reach the summit via the South-East Ridge.

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